By C. Ugolf. Hannibal-LaGrange College.
Mind-body practices not only serve disaster survivors but also provide tools to ameliorate the stress of trauma exposure among service providers colospa 135 mg low cost. As safe discount 135 mg colospa with visa, simple, adaptable, and cost-effective interventions, mind-body techniques support individual and community-wide wellness, essential for healing and reconstruction post- 23 disaster. Yoga can “improve cognitive-emotional integration” and bring unconscious content into consciousness. It is an essential building block of recovery to use tools like yoga and meditation to support development of mastery and independence. The therapist can use this material and validate the person under treatment in an active and collaborative rather than passive or inferior role in the 26 process. They recommend slow, gentle yoga breathing practices as being both safe and effective. Physical injuries and disabilities may limit the asanas (postures) that can be practiced or sustained and will require more careful preparation and practice. Even slow Ujjayi or alternate 27 nostril breathing may induce mania in some people. People taking lithium with other mood stabilizers should be sure that their lithium levels are checked and adjusted to take into account 28 any effects from rapid yoga breathing. However, as cited above, careful yoga techniques have been shown to help in reducing stress during inpatient psychiatric treatment and lessening the effects of schizophrenia. A skilled practitioner can be helpful in setting a pace and scope of yoga practice suited to the individual. Obviously, this requires special training and sensitivity on the part of the yoga instructor. Meditation is even more difficult to evaluate since the definition is extremely diffuse, and in principle it can aid in coping with any stressful mental health condition. The Dalai Lama has encouraged research in “mindfulness and contemplative 31 neuroscience,” through his Mind and Life Institute, http://www. There is a dearth of research on the use of meditation for psychiatric diagnoses, but a broad consensus that mindfulness can 32 be very helpful in developing the “emotional resilience” to cope with depression. Berkeley Wellness recently summarized the meditation data: “Subjecting meditation to scientific testing is a challenge. And other forms of relaxation training (for instance, progressive muscle relaxation, biofeedback, and stress management) may be just as useful. Still, research over the past 30 years suggests that mindfulness meditation may help in conditions such as insomnia, chronic pain, psoriasis, fibromyalgia, and some psychiatric disorders. It has been shown to alter aspects of the immune, nervous, and endocrine system and produce changes in areas of the brain associated with memory, learning, and emotion. Research suggests it may be particularly useful in helping people adhere to medical treatment and cope with pain, as well as reduce anxiety and depression 33 associated with illness. According to Gordon, when your belly is soft, all of the other muscles in your body begin to relax as well. Thus, “soft belly can help quiet the mental and physical agitation, the persistent fight-or-flight response, and the chronic stress, [as well as the] exhaustion, hopelessness, and self-condemnation, when we 34 are depressed. Deeply relax all your muscles, beginning at your feet and progressing up to your face. When you finish, sit quietly for several minutes, at first with your eyes closed and later with your eyes opened. Do not worry about whether you are successful in achieving a deep level of relaxation. When distracting thoughts occur, try to ignore them by not dwelling upon them and return to repeating “one. Practice the technique once or twice daily, but not within two hours after any meal, since the digestive processes seem to interfere with the elicitation of the relaxation response. Coining the term “relaxation response,” which the Mayo Clinic calls the “rest and digest” response, Benson identified the body’s physiological reaction that is the exact opposite of, and necessary complement to, the stress (fight-or-flight) response. In the four decades since that initial discovery, Benson and his colleagues have established a therapy to counteract the harmful effects of stress. They have explored how the relaxation response, the power of expectation and belief, and other mind-body phenomena can produce healing in your own body. Benson’s studies of the relaxation response show that the core of meditational practices is the same, and that the pervasive stress of modern life can be counteracted by self-discipline and self-calming. In Relaxation Revolution, Benson and Proctor contend that we have the ability to self-heal diseases, prevent life-threatening conditions, and supplement established drug and surgical procedures with mind-body techniques. In a special “treatment” section, Benson and Proctor describe how these mind body techniques can be applied—and are being applied— to treat a wide variety of conditions, including anxiety and depression. The proof will have to be weighed by others, and the jury is certainly out, but the lack of an identifiable risk of harm may make the question of efficacy moot. The strong correlation between observed brain wave type (alpha, beta, theta) and the way the subject was attending became obvious. Mindfulness practice seeks to cultivate greater awareness of the unity of mind and body, as well as of the ways that unconscious thoughts, feelings, and behaviors can undermine emotional, physical, and spiritual health.
People may believe in the existence of traits because they use their schemas to judge other people discount colospa 135mg line, leading them to believe that traits are more stable than they really are 135 mg colospa amex. An example is the Barnum effect—the observation that people tend to believe in descriptions of their personality that supposedly are descriptive of them but could in fact describe almost anyone. The advantage of projective tests is that they are less direct, but empirical evidence supporting their reliability and construct validity is mixed. There are behaviorist, social-cognitive, psychodynamic, and humanist theories of personality. The psychodynamic approach to understanding personality, begun by Sigmund Freud, is based on the idea that all behaviors are predetermined by motivations that lie outside our awareness, in Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. Freud proposed that the mind is divided into three components: id, ego, and superego, and that the interactions and conflicts among the components create personality. Freud also believed that psychological disorders, and particularly the experience of anxiety, occur when there is conflict or imbalance among the motivations of the id, ego, and superego and that people use defense mechanisms to cope with this anxiety. Freud argued that personality is developed through a series of psychosexual stages, each focusing on pleasure from a different part of the body, and that the appropriate resolution of each stage has implications for later personality development. Freud has probably exerted a greater impact on the public‘s understanding of personality than any other thinker, but his theories have in many cases failed to pass the test of empiricism. Freudian theory led to a number of followers known as the neo-Freudians, including Adler, Jung, Horney, and Fromm. Humanistic theories of personality focus on the underlying motivations that they believed drive personality, focusing on the nature of the self-concept and the development of self-esteem. The idea of unconditional positive regard championed by Carl Rogers has led in part to the positive psychology movement, and it is a basis for almost all contemporary psychological therapy. Personality traits of humans and animals are determined in large part by their genetic makeup. Personality is not determined by any single gene, but rather by the actions of many genes working together. The role of nature and nurture in personality is studied by means of behavioral genetics studies including family studies, twin studies, and adoption studies. These studies partition variability in personality into the influence of genetics (known as heritability), shared environment, and nonshared environment. Although these studies find that many personality traits are highly heritable, genetics does not determine everything. A friend had commented that he had a ―fat‖ stomach, and Robert began to cut down on eating. Then he began to worry that he wasn‘t growing enough and devised an elaborate series of stretching techniques to help him get taller. Robert scrutinized his face and body in the mirror for hours, finding a variety of imagined defects. He believed that his nose was crooked, and he was particularly concerned about a lump that he saw on it: ―A small lump,‖ said his mother. Around this time, Robert had his first panic attack and began to worry that everybody could notice him sweating and blushing in public. His mother told the radio host, At the time we were really happy because we thought that finally we actually knew what we were trying to fight and to be quite honest, I must admit I thought well it sounds pretty trivial. However, a lighthearted comment from a friend about a noticeable vein in his forehead prompted a relapse. When that didn‘t solve all his problems as he had hoped, he attempted to have the procedure reversed but learned that it would require complicated microsurgery. He then used injections on himself to try opening the vein again, but he could never completely reverse the first surgery. Describe the stigma of psychological disorders and their impact on those who suffer from them. This emphasis on abnormal psychology—the application of psychological science to understanding and treating mental disorders—is appropriate, as more psychologists are involved in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorder than in any other endeavor, and these are probably the most important tasks psychologists face. About 1 in every 4 Americans (or over 78 million people) are affected by a psychological disorder during any one year (Kessler, Chiu, Demler, &  Walters, 2005), and at least a half billion people are affected worldwide. The impact of mental illness is particularly strong on people who are poorer, of lower socioeconomic class, and from disadvantaged ethnic groups. People with psychological disorders are also stigmatized by the people around them, resulting in shame and embarrassment, as well as prejudice and discrimination against them. Thus the understanding and treatment of psychological disorder has broad implications for the everyday life of many people. Revised prevalence based estimates of mental disorders in the United States: Using a clinical significance criterion to reconcile 2 surveys‘ estimates.
The tank is filled with water that is the same temperature as the human body discount 135mg colospa with mastercard, and salts are added to the water so that the body floats purchase colospa 135mg online, thus reducing the sense of gravity. The tank is dark and soundproof, and the person‘s sense of smell is blocked by the use of chemicals in the water, such as chlorine. In a typical session for alternative healing and meditative purposes, a person may rest in an isolation tank for up to an hour. Treatment in isolation tanks has been shown to help with a variety of medical issues, including insomnia and muscle pain (Suedfeld, 1990b; Bood, Sundequist, Kjellgren, Nordström,  & Norlander, 2007; Kjellgren, Sundequist, Norlander, & Archer, 2001), headaches  (Wallbaum, Rzewnicki, Steele, & Suedfeld, 1991), and addictive behaviors such as smoking,  alcoholism, and obesity (Suedfeld, 1990a). Although relatively short sessions of sensory deprivation can be relaxing and both mentally and physically beneficial, prolonged sensory deprivation can lead to disorders of perception,  including confusion and hallucinations (Yuksel, Kisa, Avdemin, & Goka, 2004). It is for this reason that sensory deprivation is sometimes used as an instrument of torture (Benjamin,  2006). Meditation Meditation refers to techniques in which the individual focuses on something specific, such as an object, a word, or one’s breathing, with the goal of ignoring external distractions, focusing on one’s internal state, and achieving a state of relaxation and well-being. Followers of various Eastern religions (Hinduism, Buddhism, and Taoism) use meditation to achieve a higher spiritual state, and popular forms of meditation in the West, such as yoga, Zen, and Transcendental Meditation, have originated from these practices. You simply need to sit in a comfortable position with your eyes closed and practice deep breathing. Video Clip: Try Meditation Here is a simple meditation exercise you can do in your own home. Brain imaging studies have indicated that meditation is not only relaxing but can also induce an  altered state of consciousness. Cahn and Polich (2006) found that experienced meditators in a Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. Research has found that regular meditation can mediate the effects of stress and depression, and promote well-being (Grossman, Niemann, Schmidt, & Walach, 2004; Reibel, Greeson, Brainard,  & Rosenzweig, 2001; Salmon et al. Meditation has also been shown to assist in  controlling blood pressure (Barnes, Treiber, & Davis, 2001; Walton et al. A study by  Lyubimov (1992) showed that during meditation, a larger area of the brain was responsive to sensory stimuli, suggesting that there is greater coordination between the two brain hemispheres  as a result of meditation. Lutz and others (2004) demonstrated that those who meditate regularly (as opposed to those who do not) tend to utilize a greater part of their brain and that their gamma waves are faster and more powerful. And a study of Tibetan Buddhist monks who meditate daily found that several areas of the brain can be permanently altered by the long-term  practice of meditation (Lutz, Greischar, Rawlings, Ricard, & Davidson, 2004). It is possible that the positive effects of meditation could also be found by using other methods of relaxation. Although advocates of meditation claim that meditation enables people to attain a higher and purer consciousness, perhaps any kind of activity that calms and relaxes the mind, such as working on crossword puzzles, watching television or movies, or engaging in other enjoyed behaviors, might be equally effective in creating positive outcomes. Regardless of the debate, the fact remains that meditation is, at the very least, a worthwhile relaxation strategy. Psychology in Everyday Life: The Need to Escape Everyday Consciousness We may use recreational drugs, drink alcohol, overeat, have sex, and gamble for fun, but in some cases these normally pleasurable behaviors are abused, leading to exceedingly negative consequences for us. We frequently refer to the abuse of any type of pleasurable behavior as an ―addiction,‖ just as we refer to drug or alcohol addiction. Their approach is based on the idea that consciousness involvesself-awareness, the process of thinking about and examining the self. Normally we enjoy being self-aware, as we reflect on our relationships with others, our goals, and our achievements. But if we have a setback or a problem, or if we behave in a way that we determine is inappropriate or immoral, we may feel stupid, embarrassed, or unlovable. And even if nothing particularly bad is happening at the moment, self-awareness may still feel unpleasant because we have fears about what might happen to us or about mistakes that we might make in the future. Baumeister argues that when self-awareness becomes unpleasant, the need to forget about the negative aspects of the self may become so strong that we turn to altered states of consciousness. Baumeister believes that in these cases we escape the self by narrowing our focus of attention to a particular action or activity, which prevents us from having to think about ourselves and the implications of various events for our self-concept. Baumeister has analyzed a variety of self-defeating behaviors in terms of the desire to escape consciousness. Perhaps most obvious is suicide—the ultimate self-defeating behavior and the ultimate solution for escaping the negative aspects of self-consciousness. They feel bad about themselves, and suicide is a relief from the negative aspects of self-reflection. Suicidal behavior is often preceded by a period of narrow and rigid cognitive functioning that serves as an escape from the very negative view of the self  brought on by recent setbacks or traumas (Baumeister, 1990). Alcohol abuse may also accomplish an escape from self-awareness by physically interfering with cognitive  functioning, making it more difficult to recall the aspects of our self-consciousness (Steele & Josephs, 1990). And cigarette smoking may appeal to people as a low-level distractor that helps them to escape self-awareness. Heatherton  and Baumeister (1991) argued that binge eating is another way of escaping from consciousness.
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